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Counter example part:

// ------ ------
//     Init
// ------ ------

// `init` describes what should happen when your app started.
fn init(_: Url, _: &mut impl Orders<Msg>) -> Model {
Example from a production app (this website)
fn init(url: Url, orders: &mut impl Orders<Msg>) -> Model {

    let guides = guide::guides();
    let mut selected_seed_version = DEFAULT_SEED_VERSION;

    Model {
        base_url: url.to_base_url(),
        page: Page::init(url, &guides, &mut selected_seed_version),
        guide_list_visibility: Hidden,
        menu_visibility: Hidden,
        in_prerendering: is_in_prerendering(),
        search_query: String::new(),
        matched_guides: Vec::new(),
        mode: load_config().mode,

  • The main purpose of this function is to create a Model instance.

  • init function is called only once, when your app started.

In the Counter example, init parameters don't have names (there is only _ as a placeholder) . It signals to readers, the compiler and linters that we don't use those parameters in the function body. (Note: We can also add only prefix _ before the names (_url and _orders) instead, but it's relatively easy to overlook _ and Clippy can be sad about that because it doesn't ignore prefixed names (unlike the compiler - it ignores them).)

Parameter url: Url

It's very common that some fields in your Model depend on the current Url. You'll often write the code similar to:

fn init(url: Url, orders: &mut impl Orders<Msg>) -> Model {
    Model {
        base_url: url.to_base_url(),
        page: Page::init(url),

That's why we decided to add parameter url - for your comfort (aka developer experience) - you don't have to go through the documentation every time you need to get Url and introduce side-effects or slow JS calls into your code-base by trying to get it directly from the browser.

Parameter orders: &mut impl Orders<Msg>

It's the way how you are "giving orders" to Seed. Do you want to send an HTTP request? Do you want to subscribe to Url changes? Do you want to do something after 5 seconds? Well, use orders.

orders has many useful methods, we will discuss them in other chapters. Example usage:

fn init(url: Url, orders: &mut impl Orders<Msg>) -> Model {
        .stream(streams::window_event(Ev::Resize, |_| Msg::OnResize));
Why does
orders have such a weird type??

Well, let me explain why it hasn't got a simpler type instead. There are possible options:

  1. Without &mut

    • fn init(_: Url, orders: impl Orders<Msg>) -> Model

    • orders contains data like a side-effect queue. So when you call e.g. orders.perform_cmd(.. fetch ..) you basically modifies the queue. We can move the queue into a wrapper with interior mutability, but it isn't idiomatic or explicit enough and it would be slower and more error-prone.

  2. Without <Msg>

    • fn init(_: Url, orders: &mut impl Orders) -> Model

    • The compiler and IDEs need help - without it they don't know if our HTTP response handlers return the expected Msg type or they can't show you possible options in autocomplete lists.

    • We can hide <Msg> by some magic provided by Any, but you are basically trying to remove static types from Rust.. it's not idiomatic of course and very error-prone.

  3. Without impl

    • fn init(_: Url, orders: &mut Orders<Msg>) -> Model

    • orders contains a reference to App instance - it's required by some orders methods and there are some cases when it's useful for users, too. However struct App requires multiple type parameters. And we don't want to "leak" them into orders - it would look like orders: &mut Orders<Msg, Model, Vec<Node<Msg>>>. So Orders isn't a specific type but a trait. And those extra App types are hidden in Orders's associated types with impl help. (Note: We can't hide also type parameter for Msg because it would cause cumbersome "type acrobatics" in your components.)

How to write a good init

  • init should be short and simple - the main goal is to just create a new Model instance. Also it blocks the app - try to invoke time-consuming operations in other functions (especially in update function; you'll learn about update in next chapters) when the app is rendered and the user is happy that he sees at least some content.

  • When you need to write some helpers, respect the rule "children below the parent" - write helpers below the init function. And once you find out you are using some helpers also in update function, move them below the update.

Try: Replace Model::default() with 10, wait until the compilation is complete and then reload the browser tab with your Counter example and see the result.